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MCI-SE07: User Experiences & The Crowd
September 8 @ 09:00 - 10:15
Link to the online meeting (Zoom/MS Teams/etc.)
9:00 – 9:15 Uhr
Accelerating Deductive Coding of Qualitative Data: An Experimental Study on the Applicability of Crowdsourcing
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany
While qualitative research can produce a rich understanding of peoples’ mind, it requires an essential and strenuous data annotation process known as coding. Coding can be repetitive and time-consuming, particularly for large datasets. Crowdsourcing provides flexible access to workers all around the world, however, researchers remain doubtful about its applicability for coding. In this study, we present an interactive coding system to support crowdsourced deductive coding of semi-structured qualitative data. Through an empirical evaluation on Amazon Mechanical Turk, we assess both the quality and the reliability of crowd-support for coding. Our results show that non-expert coders provide reliable results using our system. The crowd reached a substantial agreement of up to 91% with the coding provided by experts. Our results indicate that crowdsourced coding is an applicable strategy for accelerating a strenuous task. Additionally, we present implications of crowdsourcing to reduce biases in the interpretation of qualitative data.
9:15 – 9:30 Uhr
Construction and First Testing of the UX Kids Questionnaire (UXKQ): A Tool for Measuring Pupil’s User Experience in Interactive Learning Apps using Semantic Differentials
University of Hildesheim, Germany
In this paper, we focus on the construction and first testing of a User Experience questionnaire using semantic differentials for pupils, and the role of children as co-designers in the development of quantitative methods, which has received little or no attention. To examine the appropriateness of the UXKQ tool, two studies were conducted. In the first study, six children of grade seven participated in a workshop to construct and design a questionnaire for a specific learning app. The second study took place in a school context, with 230 pupils from grades six and seven performing user tests to validate the product-specific questionnaire in comparison with an already existing UX questionnaire developed by German UX experts for teenagers. The results suggest that children of grade seven can contribute to the design of a useful tool to examine children’s User Experience during user tests. Data were subjected to a factor analysis which resulted in the development of an additional shorter version of a User Experience Questionnaire.
9:30 – 9:45 Uhr
Auditing the Biases Enacted by YouTube for Political Topics in Germany
1Institute for Information Management Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 2Centre for Media, Communication and Information Research, University of Bremen, Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 3School of Governance, Department of Political Science, Technical University of Munich, Munich
With YouTube’s growing importance as a news platform, its recommendation system came under increased scrutiny. Recognizing YouTube’s recommendation system as a broadcaster of media, we explore the applicability of laws that require broadcasters to give important political, ideological, and social groups adequate opportunity to express themselves in the broadcasted program of the service. We present audits as an important tool to enforce such laws and to ensure that a system operates in the public’s interest. To examine whether YouTube is enacting certain biases, we collected video recommendations about political topics by following chains of ten recommendations per video. Our findings suggest that YouTube’s recommendation system is enacting important biases. We find that YouTube is recommending increasingly popular but topically unrelated videos. The sadness evoked by the recommended videos decreases while the happiness increases. We discuss the strong popularity bias we identified and analyze the link between the popularity of content and emotions. We also discuss how audits empower researchers and civic hackers to monitor complex machine learning (ML)-based systems like YouTube’s recommendation system.
9:45 – 10:00 Uhr
Making Un-Use: When Humans Disengage with Technology
University of Salzburg
Humans frequently discontinue to use certain technologies, services, or platforms: they deactivate accounts, block content, or find workarounds for un-using functionalities or devices. This is noticeable in contemporary trends, such as digital detox, where an entire market emerged to support users in discontinuing their use. In this essayistic paper, we reflect on a collection of examples where humans disengage with technology by applying Vardouli’s concept of ‘making use’ to the context of discontinued use. We propose making un-use as an epistemological perspective to ‘human-artefact engagements’; one that emphasises un-users as enactors of open-ended, temporarily evolving, and creative activities. We depict making un-use as transformational acts, and discuss epistemological and designerly consequences of making un-use to shed light on a not yet explored site of inquiry and a design space that is about to evolve: a design space for making and makers of un-use.
10:00 – 10:03 Uhr
Constant Companion. How Frequent Phone Use and Interpersonal Communication Are Related to Users’ Emotional Appraisal
1Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; 2Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany
Emotional appraisal is a core aspect of user experience. This study examines whether frequency of mobile phone use can have an impact on emotional aspects of mobile phone user experience. It also comments on the role of interpersonal communication for emotional evaluation. The results of an online survey in Germany (N = 836) reveal that frequencies are related to positive and negative emotions differently. Frequent phone users experience more positive emotions than others, but the frequent use of a mobile phone does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Surprisingly, this effect does not depend on the extent of interpersonal communication. Positive emotions seem to be stronger connected to a positive user experience, whereas negative emotions probably occur due to a bad usability. This can be interpreted as an evidence for Herzberg’s two-factor theory applied to user experience.
10:03 – 10:06 Uhr
The Influence of Worrying on User Experience
1Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany; 2Fachhochschule Bielefeld, Germany
The vast majority of the German population uses the internet on a regular basis. Hence biases caused by trait worrying couldpotentially have high impact on the success of web content. The present study aims to look into this relationship by investigating theinfluence of worrying and its closely related construct intolerance of uncertainty on web user experience. As a secondary analysis of alongitudinal online study including 395 participants, this study includes participants’ self-assessed worrying (PSWQ-d) and intoleranceof uncertainty (IUS) as well as their evaluation of websites presented to them. Structural equation modelling was used to determinethe relationship of worrying and intolerance of uncertainty with users’ web user experience.
While worrying only showed a small negative effect on subjective usability, intolerance of uncertainty surprisingly showed small positive relationships with all facets of user experience. This leads to the conclusion, that worriers do not face strong additionalhindrance in finding resources and information on the internet and may not be as problematic for website success as initially expected.Further research should especially focus on intolerance of uncertainty as antecedent of user experience to further our knowledge onthe mechanisms leading to its positive relation with user experience.
10:06 – 10:09 Uhr
Eine Frage der Identität? Die Erstellung von Personas für die Entwicklung von Makerspaces für Mädchen mit Migrationshintergrund unter Berücksichtigung komplexer sozialer Identitäten
Hochschule Heilbronn, Germany
Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Erstellung von Personas unter Berücksichtigung komplexer sozialer Identitäten im Rahmen einer Anforderungsanalyse für die partizipative Entwicklung von Makerspaces für Mädchen mit Migrationshintergund im Alter von 10-16 Jahren. Makerspaces bieten insbesondere Kindern und Jugendlichen eine anschauliche Zugangsmöglichkeit zu MINT-Themen. Jedoch erreichen diese Angebote Mädchen mit Migrationshintergrund bisher nur ungenügend. Mittels teilstrukturierter Interviews mit zehn Mädchen im Alter von 10-14 Jahren wurden Daten über die Zielgruppe erfasst und in einem mehrstufigen Prozess unter Berücksichtigung komplexer sozialer Identitäten vier Identitätsstrukturen identifiziert. Auf dieser Basis wurden vier Personas entwickelt. Der Prozess der Personaerstellung wird beispielhaft dargestellt und die weitere Verwendung der Personas im Kontext „MINT-Bildung/Makerspaces“ diskutiert.
10:09 – 10:12 Uhr
A Technical Framework for Investigating the Impact of Design Elements in the Wild: Using Instagram as an Example
TU Kaiserslautern, Germany
It is important to investigate effects of different interface designs not only for small sample systems but also for large real-world applications. However, it is not always possible for researchers to get direct access to these applications or relevant user data. Studies investigating possible negative effects such as keeping users occupied longer or making them spent more money might not get the consent of the application’s creator. We present a technical architecture and an open source implementation to conduct comparative studies on external apps by enabling researchers to turn specific interface elements on and off. The current implementation requires that the target app is available as a web app and that the study participants access it through a custom Android app. While the framework is not limited to a certain app, we use Instagram as an example and present results from a proof-of-concept study showcasing the framework.
10:12 – 10:15 Uhr
Supporting the Onboarding of 3D Printers through Conversational Agent
University of Siegen, Germany
In view of its capacity to create physical objects for a wide range of different potential applications, 3D printing has become increasingly popular over the years. However, given its scope of application, 3D printing can be challenging. Novice users often need assistance from experts, who are not always available. Recent interest in the development of conversational agents opens up the possibility of assisting novice users in their interactions with 3D printers, thus improving their experience. In this paper, we illustrate a potential concept of a conversational agent and present a prototype of a Telegram chatbot to improve the user experience of 3D printing.