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MCI-SE06: Virtual Reality

September 7 @ 16:00 - 17:30

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16:00 – 16:15 Uhr

Kurs halten in VR: Vergleich der Bewegungspräzision von Gamepad, Armswinger und Laufstall

Florian Borsum1, Max Pascher1,2, Jonas Auda2, Stefan Schneegass2, Gregor Lux1, Jens Gerken1

1Westfälische Hochschule, Deutschland; 2Universität Duisburg-Essen, paluno, Deutschland

In diesem Beitrag wird untersucht, inwieweit verschiedene Formen von Fortbewegungstechniken in Virtual Reality Umgebungen Einfluss auf die Präzision in der Interaktion haben. Dabei wurden zwei Techniken ausgewählt, die mittels der Realität nachempfundene körperliche Interaktion eine hohen Grad an Realismus erzeugen sollen (Armswinger, Laufstall). In einer Studie mit 18 Proband:innen wurde die Präzision dieser beiden Fortbewegungstechniken über sechs unterschiedliche Hindernisse in einem VR-Parcours untersucht und diese mit einer klassischen Gamepad Steuerung verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass für einzelne Hindernisse, die zum einen eine Kombination aus Vorwärts- und Seitwärtsbewegung erfordern (Slalom, Klippe) sowie auf Geschwindigkeit abzielen (Schiene) der Laufstall eine signifikant präzisere Steuerung ermöglicht als der Armswinger. Auf den gesamten Parcours gesehen ist jedoch kein Eingabegerät signifikant präziser als ein anderes. Die Benutzung des Laufstalls benötigt jedoch signifikant mehr Zeit als Gamepad und Armswinger. Ebenso zeigte sich, dass das Ziel eine reale Laufbewegung 1:1 abzubilden auch mit einem Laufstall nach wie vor nicht erreicht wird, die Bewegung aber dennoch als intuitiv und immersiv wahrgenommen wird.

16:15 – 16:30 Uhr

Using Body Language of Avatars in VR Meetings as Communication Status Cue

Marco Kurzweg1, Jens Reinhardt2, Wladimir Nabok2, Katrin Wolf1

1Beuth University of Applied Sciences, Germany; 2Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

While traditional videoconferencing causes privacy issues, virtual meetings are not yet widely used. Their communication quality still lacks usability and important non-verbal communication cues, such as body language, are underrepresented.

We aim at exploring virtual avatars’ body language and how it can be used to indicate meeting attendees’ communication status. By comparing users’ perceptions of avatar behavior, we found that avatar body language across gender can be an indication of communication willingness. We derive resulting body language design recommendations and recommend using attentively behaving avatars as default body language and to indicate being busy through actions of the avatar, such as drinking, typing, or talking on a phone. These actions indicate that users are temporarily busy with another task, but still are attending the meeting. When users are unavailable, their avatars should not be displayed at all and in cases of longer meeting interruptions, the avatar of a user should leave the virtual meeting room.

16:30 – 16:45 Uhr

Comparison between Virtual Reality and Physical Flight Simulators for Cockpit Familiarization

Stefan Auer1, Jens Gerken2, Harald Reiterer3, Hans-Christian Jetter4

1School of Informatics, Communication and Media, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Hagenberg, Austria; 2Westphalian University of Applied Sciences, Gelsenkirchen, Germany; 3Computer and Information Science, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany; 4Institute for Multimedia and Interactive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

Airlines and flying schools use high-end physical flight simulators (PFS) to reduce costs and risks of pilot training. However, such PFS with full-scale cockpits have very high acquisition and operation costs.

In contrast, recent consumer-grade and off-the-shelf soft- and hardware can be used to create increasingly realistic virtual reality flight simulators (VRFS) that could potentially serve as cost-efficient and flexible alternatives.

We present a user study with 11 participants to determine whether consumer-grade VRFS can supplement or even replace a PFS during cockpit familiarization training (CFT).

We compared a full-scale Boeing 737-800NG PFS with a VRFS based on off-the-shelf flight simulator software combined with a consumer-grade head-mounted display and either finger tracking or a handheld controller as input device.

Participants performed instrument reading tasks and check procedures from the aircraft’s operating manual.

We did not observe statistically significant differences in successful instrument reading tasks, error rates and task completion between PFS and VRFS during CFT. However, we found that VRFS’ Mental Demand, Physical Demand, Effort, task completion times, and levels of simulator sickness were significantly higher and exceeded acceptable levels. We conclude that

future VRFS research needs to improve soft- and hardware for interacting with simulated switches and identify and reduce sources of simulator sickness.

16:45 – 17:00 Uhr

Effects of Avatar Appearance and Locomotion on Co-Presence in Virtual Reality Collaborations

Jann Philipp Freiwald, Julius Schenke, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Frank Steinicke

Universität Hamburg, Germany

In this paper we share the results of a user study designed to investigate the impact of locomotion techniques and avatar appearances in multi-user virtual reality (VR) settings.

In our study we compared continuous joystick-based and non-continuous teleportation-based locomotion with regards to the observer’s perceived co-presence, cybersickness, fairness and enjoyment in a competitive game environment.

Likewise, we compared the effects of humanoid and abstract avatar appearances.

The results revealed significant effects of the locomotion type on perceived co-presence and subjective fairness, such that continuous locomotion yielded significantly higher perceived co-presence and fairness.

However, there were no significant differences between the avatar appearances except for a weak positive effect of realistic avatars on mutual awareness.

These findings suggests that a greater emphasis should be put on the visual representation of teleportation-based navigation in multi-user VR, for instance, by animating positional transitions.

They further suggest that a distinction for the effect of avatar appearance has to be made based on the context of the multi-user VR application.

While previous work showed a positive effect of realistic avatars on co-presence during cooperative tasks, we found no such effect in a competitive setting.

17:00 – 17:15 Uhr

A Critical Assessment of the Use of SSQ as a Measure of General Discomfort in VR Head-Mounted Displays

Teresa Hirzle1, Maurice Cordts1, Enrico Rukzio1, Jan Gugenheimer2, Andreas Bulling3

1Ulm University, Deutschland; 2Polytechnic Institute of Paris; 3University of Stuttgart

Based on a systematic literature review of more than 300 papers published over the last 10 years, we provide indicators that the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ) is extensively used and widely accepted as a general discomfort measure in virtual reality (VR) research – although it actually only accounts for one category of symptoms. This results in important other categories (digital eye strain (DES) and ergonomics) being largely neglected. To contribute to a more comprehensive picture of discomfort in VR head-mounted displays, we further conducted an online study (N=352) on the severity and relevance of all three symptom categories. Most importantly, our results reveal that symptoms of simulator sickness are significantly less severe and of lower prevalence than those of DES and ergonomics. In light of these findings, we critically discuss the current use of SSQ as the only discomfort measure and propose a more comprehensive factor model that also includes DES and ergonomics.

17:15 – 17:18 Uhr

Investigating the Sense of Presence Between Handcrafted and Panorama Based Virtual Environments

Alexander Schäfer1, Gerd Reis2, Didier Stricker1,2

1TU Kaiserslautern, Germany; 2German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence

Virtual Reality applications are becoming increasingly mature. The requirements and complexity of such systems is steadily increasing. Realistic and detailed environments are often omitted in order to concentrate on the interaction possibilities within the application. Creating an accurate and realistic virtual environment is not a task for laypeople, but for experts in 3D design and modeling. To save costs and avoid hiring experts, panorama images are often used to create realistic looking virtual environments. These images can be captured and provided by non-experts.

Panorama images are an alternative to handcrafted 3D models in many cases because they offer immersion and a scene can be captured in great detail with the touch of a button. This work investigates whether it is advisable to recreate an environment in detail by hand or whether it is recommended to use panorama images for virtual environments in certain scenarios. For this purpose, an interactive virtual environment was created in which a handmade 3D environment is almost indistinguishable from an environment created with panorama images. Interactive elements were added and a user study was conducted to investigate the effect of both environments to the user.

17:18 – 17:21 Uhr

A Distributed Virtual Reality Study Under COVID-19 Conditions – Comparing Continuous and Non-Continuous Locomotion Techniques in Mobile VR

Markus Dresel, Nicole Jochems

Universität zu Lübeck, Deutschland

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic complicates empirical Virtual Reality (VR) research and especially laboratory studies. As an alternative study design, we conducted a distributed VR study that took place in the participants’ homes, using mobile VR goggles and personal smartphones. We investigated the influence of two different locomotion techniques on presence, usability, and cybersickness. Subjects were asked to solve a navigation task once with the continuous “Look-Down-to-Move” technique and once with the non-continuous “Point-And-Teleport” technique. Surprisingly, the two locomotion techniques performed comparably well on all variables assessed. The study design showed to be understandable and conductible for the subjects. However, we found that (1) hardware limitations of the used smartphones and (2) confounding factors that are beyond the control of the experimenters could have distorted the results of the study. We propose using uniform hardware and imposing stricter rules for participation to achieve more controlled conditions. We cautiously conclude that the impact of the continuity of locomotion presence, usability, and cybersickness seems to be less severe in the context of mobile VR than in immersive high-end VR device, which could provide designers of mobile virtual environments (VEs) with more flexibility when developing a suitable locomotion technique for their application.

17:21 – 17:24 Uhr

Enabling Reusable Haptic Props for Virtual Reality by Hand Displacement

Jonas Auda, Uwe Gruenefeld, Stefan Schneegass

Universität Duisburg-Essen / paluno, Germany

Virtual Reality (VR) enables compelling visual experiences. However, providing haptic feedback is still challenging. Previous work suggests utilizing haptic props to overcome such limitations and presents evidence that props could function as a single haptic proxy for several virtual objects. In this work, we displace users’ hands to account for virtual objects that are smaller or larger. Hence, the used haptic prop can represent several differently sized virtual objects. We conducted a user study (N=12) and presented them with two tasks during which we continuously handed them the same haptic prop with differently sized virtual counterparts. In the first task, we used a linear hand displacement and increased the size of the virtual object to understand when participants perceive a mismatch. In the second task, we compare the linear displacement to logarithmic and exponential displacements. We found that participants, on average, do not perceive the size mismatch for virtual objects up to 50% larger than the physical prop. However, we did not find any differences between the explored different displacement. We conclude our work with future research directions.

17:24 – 17:27 Uhr

DeepVR: Konzeptuelle Grundlagen und Umsetzung eines Virtual Reality basierten Unterstützungssystems in der psychotherapeutischen Depressions-Behandlung

Barbara Hemsen1, André Wittenborn1, Steffen Holsteg2, André Karger2, Sebastian Freitag3, Philip Mildner3, Jens Piesk3, Dunja Storch1, Jarek Krajewski1

1Institute of Experimental Psychophysiology GmbH; 2Klinisches Institut für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf; 3Nuromedia GmbH

Virtual Reality (VR)-Anwendungen bieten das Potential besonders realitätsnahen Erlebens in unterschiedlichsten Kontexten. Zunehmend werden sie auch im medizinischen Bereich eingesetzt, um Ressourcen optimal auszuschöpfen und Lernprozesse zu unterstützen. In der Psychotherapie haben sich erste Systeme zur Behandlung von Angsterkrankungen etabliert. Für die Behandlung von Depressionen und im Bereich der psychodynamischen Therapieverfahren finden sich allerdings kaum VR-Ansätze. In diesem Artikel wird das interdisziplinäre Projekt DeepVR vorgestellt, das einen Beitrag dazu liefern soll, diese Lücke zu schließen. Ziel des Projekts ist es, ein VR-System zu entwickeln, welches ergänzend zum präsenztherapeutischen Setting in der psychodynamischen Depressionsbehandlung zum Einsatz kommen soll. In diesem Paper werden die theoretischen Kernkonzepte und die drei bisher entstandenen Module vorgestellt. Die Module bestehen aus einer Rollenspielübung zur Bearbeitung von Beziehungskonflikten, einem Modul zur ergänzenden Durchführung von Achtsamkeitsübungen und einem Feedback-Modul für den Therapeuten, welches die Erfolgskontrolle und die frühzeitige Erkennung von Rückfällen unterstützen soll. Erste vielversprechende Rückmeldungen im Rahmen des nutzerzentrierten Entwicklungsprozesses werden berichtet und Ansatzpunkte zur Weiterentwicklung und Evaluation diskutiert.

Virtual reality applications potentially offer very life-like experiences in different contexts. Increasingly, they are also used in the medical field to optimize the utilization of resources as well as to support learning processes. In the field of psychotherapy, first anxiety treating systems are established. However, regarding depression and psychodynamic therapy, VR-based therapeutic models are yet rarely seen. This article introduces the interdisciplinary project DeepVR which aims to close this gap. The project’s goal is to develop a VR system which is supposed to be used in addition to the presence therapeutical setting in the psychodynamic treatment of depression. In this paper, the theoretical core concepts and the three successfully developed modules are presented. The modules consist of a role play in which relationship conflicts are processed, a mindfulness routine, and a feedback module for the therapist to support success monitoring and early detection of relapse in patients. Finally, promising feedback of the user-centered development process is reported and further development as well as evaluation opportunities are discussed.

17:27 – 17:30 Uhr

The Art of Orientation – How not to be Lost in 3D

Jendrik Müller1, Nils Beese2, Jan Spilski2, Alexander Jaksties1, Jan-Hendrik Sünderkamp1, Jan Hendrik Plümer1, Kerstin Müller1

1CGTI Lab, Fachhochschule Bielefeld, Germany; 2Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany

A good orientation ability is often essential to effectively cope with many tasks in everyday life. In the virtual reality (VR), given tasks can usually only be solved with good orientation skills. In this paper we investigate which factors improve the orientation ability in VR. For this purpose, subjects had to find a specific room in a virtual building and estimate their destination on a 2D map. Performance was examined with regard to the form of movement, spatial design and complexity of the virtual building.

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September 7
16:00 - 17:30